The objectives of this chapter are to review the evolution of the organizational structure, institutional management, and financing of the Chinese agricultural research system and to explore reform options to promote future agricultural growth and food security and reduce poverty. We first review the trend in agricultural production and productivity growth in Chinese agriculture, using newly available data and new aggregation methods. We then discuss the institutional and policy environment of the Chinese agricultural R&D system. Next, we analyze major issues in the provision and financing of agricultural R&D in China. This analysis is followed by two case studies: one of a national research institute, and the other of a provincial institute. Finally, we offer some policy choices regarding reform of the existing system in light of emerging challenges in the 21st century.